Voice-Over Narration as an Active Agent in Film

December 9, 2009

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

I wrote this essay for my MHIS 429 Topics in Film/Video course this semester at the Emily Carr University of Art + Design. Special thanks to Sarah Wichlacz for her essay titled, “Issues of Narration: Voice-Over in Film” which definitely helped me in the writing of my own essay. You can see her very well written piece at http://sarahwichlacz.com/?p=74

– FlashAddict

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Voice-Over Narration as an Active Agent in Film

The use of voice-over narration can and has been used in film to help convey greater depth and meaning to the audience. Whereas on the one hand, there are some who see it as a crutch when the director or writer is unable to move along the storyline effectively within a given scene; yet on the other however, when it is used effectively, voice-over narration can be inserted as an active agent to help provide greater impact and understanding to the audience in a way that a complex actor’s performance or scenery cannot convey. It is within this context that this essay will explore individual examples of voice-over narration from select films in which both sides of the issue will be explored; by not simply analyzing each voice-over narration example as either good or bad, but looking deeper at how the context and overall delivery affect the films, scenes and actors within.

To begin with, a proper definition of voice-over narration in film must be established, “Narration, or voice-over, is used in both documentary and fiction. It may be used to deliver information, provide the point of view of an unseen character, or allow an onscreen character to comment on the action.”(Ascher and Pincus 493) Put more simply, “A narrative text is a text in which an agent relates (‘tells’) a story in a particular medium, such as language, imagery, sound, buildings, or a combination thereof.” (Bal 5) By using this standard, multiple methods of providing voice-over narration in film can be utilized to help tell their respective stories, “In documentary filmmaking some of the key stylistic questions relate to how much the filmmaker attempts to control or interact with the subjects, and to the way information is conveyed in the movie.” (Ascher and Pincus 332)

The style adopted by U.K. documentarians such as John Grierson in the 1930s and 1940s is a kind of hybrid that can involve staged events and real people (non-actors)…Many of these films use a ‘voice of God’ narration-the authoritative male voice that provides factual information and often spells out the message intended for the viewer to take from the film. (Ascher and Pincus 333)

On the other side of the spectrum, Ascher & Pincus further explain:

Cinema vérité (also called just vérité or direct cinema) films attempt to spontaneously react to events and capture life as it is lived…Many of these films use no narration or interviews and attempt to minimize the sense that the material has been influenced or interpreted by the filmmaker. (Ascher and Pincus 333)

Within this context, one of the most notable examples of the use of voice-over narration can be seen in the opening of the film, Citizen Kane (1941), “The film’s plot sets another purveyor of knowledge, the ‘News on the March’ short. We’ve already seen the crucial functions of the newsreel in introducing us both to Kane’s story and to its plot construction, with the newsreel’s sections previewing the parts of the film as a whole.” (Bordwell and Thompson 105) In essence, this scene of paramount importance was purposely written by Orson Welles in order to allow the principal characters follow-up with further details later on in the film in their own flashback narrations.

The reinforcement of the scenes, characters and events detailed in this brief montage showcasing Kane’s life over the span of only a few minutes is accentuated, as referenced earlier by Ascher and Pincus, via the deep authoritative voice in which the booming male narrator speaks, which was quite representative on the actual newsreel footage of the era. In other words, by creating a fictionalized representation of a factually based newsreel within a film and having a similar sounding voice actor provide the narration within it, Welles provided the audience with further reinforcement of the importance of Charles Foster Kane on a global scale, in which he truly was within his own Xanadu.

Further evidence of life imitating art and vice versa comes from the voice-over narration within the film, Little Children (2006) which featured the deep resonating male voice of Will Lyman as the film’s narrator. Lyman’s voice was already recognizable, even his face wasn’t, for the 125 episodes of the PBS documentary television show Frontline (1982-2009) that he has narrated. With such various titles as, A Death in Tehran (2009), Breaking the Bank (2009), and Black Money (2009), Lyman has narrated multiple episodes for the series, while remaining unseen to the audience, in which investigative journalists scour the globe looking for corruption, abuse of power and instances of government, humanitarian and ecological tragedies.

To that end, Little Children (2006) director Todd Field must have realized the impact that Lyman’s voice would have on the film’s audience as an implied and trusted broker of knowledge and wisdom. “In the history of the documentary, this voice has been for the most part that of the male, and its power resides in the possession of knowledge and in the privileged, unquestioned activity of interpretation.” (Doane 369)

One scene of particular note from the film is where the character of the husband, Richard Pierce, shows the length to which he will go in order to satiate his obsession. The scene opens up with him in his work office as his secretary heads home for the night and now suddenly alone, Richard decides to indulge his favorite pastime of late, masturbating to pictures of the internet sensation that is Slutty Kay. In comes the booming, authoritative and faceless voice of narrator Will Lyman, as the audience begins to realize the level of Richard’s obsession at not being able to truly connect with her.

Lately, Slutty Kay had become a problem. He thought about her far too often and spent hours studying the thousands of photographs available to him…Though as close as Richard sometimes felt to Slutty Kay, as much as he believed that he knew her, he could never get past the uncomfortable fact she existed for him solely as a digital image. The panties were an attempt to solve this problem, maybe a sniff or two would hurry things along so he could get back downstairs to his real life, where his wife was waiting for him; her impatience increasing by the minute…(Little Children)

To that end, the scene changes to his home office as he now tries to put on her soiled panties over his head in order to accentuate the experience, as the frame changes yet again to show Richard’s wife coming upstairs as Lyman explains her growing impatience and finds him masturbating while breathing deeply into the soiled panties. Lyman’s matter of fact and monotonous voice-over breathes, for lack of a better term, immense irony into the scene and provides a very functional backdrop in order to place such an absurd setting as a woman walking into her husband’s office and finding him masturbating to a Polaroid of a naked woman while gasping into a pair of soiled woman’s panties. “The different components of the cinematic narrator as diagramed usually work in consort, but sometimes the implied author creates an ironic tension between two of them.” (Chatman 484)

An additional aspect of voice-over narration is when the director or creative vision behind the film as a whole provides the narration themselves. Take for instance the case from the film, A River Runs Through It (1992), in which director Robert Redford took on the persona of the book’s original author, Norman MacLean, and provided the film’s flashback voice-overs.

…films often create the sense of character-narration so strongly that one accepts the voice-over narrator as if he of she were the mouthpiece of the image-maker either for the whole film or for the duration of his or her embedded story. We put our faith in the voice not created but as creator. (Kozloff 45)

After auditioning several different prominent voice-over actors, Redford was not happy with any of the takes and as a result, he decided to try it out himself. Given Redford’s long standing stature within the film industry and recognizable voice, what followed was that he was able to further personify the essence of what the author and main character experienced while growing up in small-town Montana, the trials he went through with his younger brother Paul and how the quiet and serene beauty of glacier fed streams full of trout could help heal the soul. This was especially evident in the final scene of the film in which the viewer sees what is now an elderly and frail looking Norman MacLean fishing the river alone, with Redford’s voice-over providing the full meaning as Paul reflects on his life.

Now nearly all those I loved and did not understand when I was young are dead, but I still reach out to them.  Of course, now I am too old to be much of a fisherman, and now of course I usually fish the big waters alone, although some friends think I shouldn’t. Then in the Arctic half-light of the canyon, all existence fades to a being with my soul and memories and the sounds of the Big Blackfoot River and a four-count rhythm and the hope that a fish will rise.

Eventually, all things merge into one, and a river runs through it. The river was cut by the world’s great flood and runs over rocks from the basement of time. On some of the rocks are timeless raindrops. Under the rocks are the words, and some of the words are theirs.

I am haunted by waters. (A River Runs Through It)

The next logical focus to explore is whether or not to use voice-over narration at all and how the format is different from written media for example, “Unlike in literature, in film the distinction between telling a story through verbal narration and showing it on the screen through images and action is not so easily discountable.” (Kozloff 13) A case in point for this argument comes from the multiple versions of the film, Blade Runner (1982), in which it has gone from its original theatrical release to being re-edited seven times to its most recent ‘Final Cut’. The most obvious change that was made from the original film was the removal of Deckard’s voice-over and while this had already been removed from an earlier 1992 ‘Director’s Cut,’ this final version of the film was also the only version that director Ridley Scott had complete artistic control over.

The climactic scene of the film in which the removal of the voice-over warranted greatest scrutiny was the scene near the end of the film, where on the original inception of Deckard’s monotonous voice-over was further evidence, although somewhat ambiguous, of him being a replicant (a humanoid looking robot who cannot show or feel emotion), from a viewer’s perspective, the use of the voice-over caused more controversy than it was worth according to prolific filmmaker, Frank Darabont:

There’s one area where I thought the voice-over was so clunky; it landed with such a hollow thud, was the ‘Tears in Rain.’ I remember when I first saw the movie, I’m in the theatre and I am so drawn in by what Rutger Hauer is doing and I am so drawn in by what the theme of the movie has brought us to, this magnificent moment where he is letting go of life…‘I’ve seen things you people wouldn’t believe, all these moments will be lost, in time, like Tears in Rain. Time to die.’

And right as I am just…it’s like having sex and someone dumps cold water on you. Right at that moment where I am at my most emotional crescendo as a viewer, here comes this thudding, dunderheaded voice-over, ‘I don’t know why he saved my life, maybe in those last moments, he loved life more than he ever had before.’ Yes, I know that, thank you. Thank you for kicking this beautiful, delicate, emotional note that we were achieving right in the nuts. (Dangerous Days: Making Blade Runner)

Conversely, in the subsequent versions of the film in which Deckard’s monologue has been removed, greater emphasis has been placed on Rutger Hauer’s performance of Roy when he releases the dove as he dies and it flies up to the dark and stormy clouds above. Layered over all of this is the minimalist orchestration by the film’s composer, Vangelis and the slightest of crescendo booming sound as Deckard slowly closes his eyes and deeply inhales as he bears witness to his former foe’s final testimony; all of which is realized without the use of the voice-over.

At the end of the shooting cycle and on the bottom of the cutting room floor, directors, editors and screenplay writers have debated the merits of inserting or removing voice-over narration in film for decades now. In some instances, overall theme, plot and character development or simply personal taste can dictate whether or not to use voice-overs to help provide the audience with a greater understanding of what they are seeing on the screen. To that end however, and when it is an active agent in the storytelling process and manufactured to cater to the targeted audience in subtle and imperceptible ways, then voice-over narration can help bridge the gap between what can and cannot be shown on film. But if it is used in a contrived and convoluted manner, then the opposite can occur and further alienate the audience from being able to fully appreciate the level of understanding that the filmmakers are trying to achieve.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Works Cited

A River Runs Through It. Dir. Robert Redford. Allied Filmmakers, 1992

Ascher, Steven, and Pincus, Edward. The Filmmaker’s Handbook. New York: PLUME, 2007

Bal, Mieke. Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985.

Bordwell, David, and Thompson, Kirstin. FILM ART: An Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008.

Braudy, Leo and Marshall Cohen, eds. Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Chatman, Seymour. “The Cinematic Narrator.” Braudy and Cohen, 473-86.

Dangerous Days: Making Blade Runner. Dir. Charles de Lauzirika, Frank Darabont, 2007. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V_nsSxblpoI

Doane, Mary Ann. The Voice in the Cinema: The Articulation of Body and Space. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980

Kozloff, Barbara. Invisible Storytellers: Voice-Over Narration in American Fiction Film. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

Little Children. Dir. Todd Field. New Line Cinema, Bona Fide Productions, Standard Film Company, 2006.

Wichlacz, Sarah. 27 May 2006. Issues of Narration: Voice-Over Film. http://sarahwichlacz.com/?p=74


The SHOT – Reading the Screen

November 15, 2008

THE SHOT
= the smallest unit in film – when the camera starts / records / then stops
– compared to language (word, letter) – a shot in film is like a sentence
– when you write, you start with a sentence or a phrase (are you writing an essay, letter, poem…and you build your structure from there)
– every film starts with a shot (feature film, documentary, animation…and you build your film from there)
– film maker decides how the shot will be setup

– how the film image is photographed – based on film stocks and immulsion (b/w, high contrast, low contrast…)
– technicolor was an invention developed in the 1930’s
– tinting = dip b/w film into a bath of dye
– toning = positive print developed and dye is added

DAISIES – dir Vera Chytilova

– film made just prior to the Soviet takeover in 1968 – they went nuts over it and forbid her from making any further films
– great example of toning

– overexposure and underexposure
– under crank film speed was a throw back to early film days from manually cranked cameras = high speed when projected
– over crank = slow motion when it plays through the projector
– wide angle lens = distortion – normal lens is 35 to 50 mm – telephoto lens = character takes forever to move forward:

THE GRADUATE

– depth of field refers to what is in focus in the frame
– deep space – director stages action that is in focus on several different planes (Citizen Kane)
– selective focus = multiple plane action but only one is in focus
– CITIZEN KANE = faster film, shorter focal length lenses, deep focus
– pulling/rack focus = Mission Impossible – Jean Reno holding the rope in the air duct – in comes the rat and he is terrified

SPECIAL EFFECTS
– super imposition = one image over another and put in through the projector
– rear projection = driving and projecting a street scene behind the actors
– front projection – camera films through a 2-way mirror
– mattework = actor is filmed on a blue screen

Aspect Ratios
Academy Ratio = 1.33 / 1 (oldest and was the standard for a long time)
Widescreen = 1.85 / 1

CAMERA SHOTS
– extreme long shot = panorama – cannot see people – just the landscape
– long shot = large area but also has characters
– full shot = full figures and it is the size of what would be a stage
– medium long shot = from the knees up
– medium shot = waist up (also known as the sitcom shot)
– medium close up = head and shoulders

– close up = head / hand / foot only
– extreme close up = extremely close viewpoint of one part of someone’s anatomy (Citizen Kane = saying Rosebud – only see his lips)

– cut away / insert = information only – hands reading a letter / inserting a key into a lock
– point of view = what the character sees
– mask = character looking through a telescope / keyhole = black mask area to signify this
– over the shoulder = conversation shot
– dirty over the shoulder = shoulder is in frame of the conversation shot
– reaction shot = very manipulative (AAHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH reaction…)

STATIONERY CAMERA ANGLES
– straight overhead = bird’s eye view (Lullaby of Broadway / Mystic River – when Sean Penn realizes his daughter is the body)

– high angle = when the camera is looking down on a subject (used as to be read as having a certain significance – subject is read to be vulnerable, powerless or insignificant)
– eye level = documentary and comedy in order to see what is happening
– low angle = camera is low looking up (subject seems menacing, overpowered or important)
– extreme low angle / worm’s eye = camera in the floor looking up
– oblique/canted/dutch angle = tilted or askew (Do The Right Thing)
– mobile camera = camera is stationery but the camera pans from right to left (street shot panning and then stops when main character enters frame and starts following them in the other direction
– tilt = camera moves up and down (camera tilting down to show Dorothy’s Red Ruby shoes)
– switch pan = camera is stationery but there is a swoosh showing a change (Citizen Kane breakfast scene in the first marriage)

– zooming in and zooming out = camera doesn’t move but moving in with the zoom (implies finding out what the character is thinking – or Godfather zoom out intro with Marlon Brando)

– snap zoom = instead of cutting back and forth they use this instead (see kung fu movies – camera follows the action of the punches/kicks

MOVING CAMERA ANGLES
– dolly shot = use push in or pull back
– tracking = dolly shot where they actually lay down tracks
– traveling/trucking = camera on a vehicle and film the people on that vehicle
– hand held = camera operator following the actors (the conformist / blair witch)
– vertigo = made famous by Alfred Hitchcock (dolly in as you zoom out or vice versa)
– steady cam = Goodfellas shot
– space cam =  flying aircraft with a camera built into it (Into the Sea with Javier Bardem)
– crane shot / cherry picker
– jib shot = camera goes up or down along a mast
– aerial = airplane shot

LAWRENCE OF ARABIA – dir. David Lean
– incredible range of shots used in this film

DO THE RIGHT THING
– Spike Lee started internships with the unions so that they would hire more women and people of colour
– based on an actual event of a race riot that took place in Howard Beach
– several black men had a flat tire in front of an Italian bar and were chased out by the Italians are one tripped and was killed when hit by a car
– 24 hour period from one morning to the next – set in the neighborhood
– Samuel L. Jackson plays the DJ and ties the setting and characters together
– Radio Rahim was always shot solitary to showcase his lack of wanting to be part of the community and low angle to show him being imposing
– statistic of when the temperature goes over 95%, the murder rate rises as well as people lose their tempers much easier
– film ends with differing quotes from Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X (non violence versus intelligent self-defence)
– restlessly wandering camera – starting on a closeup then move all over the place

TOUCH OF EVIL – dir. Orson Welles

– probably the most famous sequence shot / long take
– instead of close up, followed by pan to long shot, a long series of shots are choreographed into one single shot

TOKYO STORY – dir. OZU

– filmed at the height of a person kneeling on a Japanese tatami mat
– usually full shots with people moving in and out of the frame
– focuses on family drama / stories – focus on Japan but they are universal
– flips traditional Hollywood convention by crossing 180 degree line where characters and settings flip perspective

TRAGIC STORY WITH HAPPY ENDING – dir. REGINA PESSOA

– director had a schitzophrenic mother – very aware about being different and the community’s reaction to her mother
– draws each phase on a piece of paper – each frame is photocopied onto glossy paper -indian ink is drawn in on top of the drawing and then uses a razor blade to scratch into the ink – background is on a separate piece of paper and scanned in – superimposed to form the final image


Last week’s Reading the Screen class notes

October 24, 2008

MIDTERM – next week 12:30 – 2:00 – then 30 minute break – followed by term paper discussion – covers chapters 1, 2, 3, 10 (lectures and film screenings)

LONELY BOY
– portrait documentary
– repetition of loud screaming girls
– direct cinema / cinema verite

– – – – – – – – – –

SHADOW OF A DOUBT – recap scenes
– rhyming/ pattern scenes back at the dinner table – talking about death, money and music
– Little Charlie is care free in the first scene / Uncle Charlie is a bit hesitant and tips over the wine glass
– Merry Widow Serial Killer vs. Merry Widow Waltz
– 2nd scene, Little Charlie is now upset and doesn’t want to hear anything about death
– Uncle Charlie knows that his niece knows about him – he is now menacing and predatory

– – – – – – – – – –

CITIZEN KANE – pattern scenes
– scene with reporter and Jedidiah in the hospital
– flashback to the wedding scenes

FIRST MARRIAGE SCENE
– montage of scenes at the breakfast table – signifies passage of time and degradation of the relationship between Charles and Emily
– “people will think what I tell them to think”
– characters are the same and they are eating breakfast at the same time
– swish pan to move from time to time
– distance between the two is slowly getting further apart
– body language changes from loving to confrontational
– she ends up reading the rival newspaper
– less and less dialog happening and also gaining in argument levels to them not even speaking
– shows aging, makeup, clothing (she starts as elegant to more conservative)
– behind him, the background doesn’t change, yet her background changes (signifying that he has never changed)

SECOND MARRIAGE SCENE
– 2nd wife Susan is doing jigsaw puzzles
– in comes Charles lumbering into the grand hall which is completely empty
– Please Charlie…Charlie please!
– jigsaw puzzle slowly gets filled in with her hands having different rings and bracelets
– fire lit, fire not lit
– distance between the two is much larger – they are now yelling just to hear one another (HUH?)
– the scene starts with a massive fire in the hearth yet in the latter scene the massive hearth is cold and empty, like their marriage
– jigsaw puzzles were beautiful sceneries and far away places

DIFFERENT NARRATIVES IN CITIZEN KANE
– multiple people talking about Charles Foster Kane
– had the effect of multiple eulogies by the multiple narrators

– – – – – – – – – –

Narrative is a chain of events in cause – effect relationship that occur in time and space (causality and time are essential)

Story = all the events in a narrative both explicit and those inferred or presumed by the audience
Plot = whatever is on the screen that you see
Diagetic = whatever happens to the main characters
Non-Diagetic = what is added that the characters don’t know about (Jaws DUM DUM DUM DUM DUM to build tension in the viewing audience)

– – – – – – – – – –

THIS UNFAMILIAR PLACE

“This documentary is a lyrical rumination on a violence and disaster centering on the director_s attempts to get her father to talk about his experiances as a Polish Jew during World War II.”

– hand held camera shot documentary
– earthquake footage from the San Francisco earthquake
– only 2 photos remain from her father’s youth during WWII
– scenes of destruction from news footage and CCTV
– meant to resemble Warsaw during the Nazi invasion?
– see you in the morning…I hope so
– now we see b/w footage from WWII showing Warsaw burning
– voice-over narration was very personal
– mystery that she is trying to figure out above her father’s past
– final scene is at the amusement park – and no one is in the park either (non-diagetic)

– – – – – – – – – –

VAGABOND (sans toit ni loi)

– rolling French farm hills with wheat growing on them
– mysterious and off-putting violins soundtrack overture playing
– interspersed clips of the dead woman and cleaning wine marks from the floor and walls
– multiple people in the town have flashbacks about the young girl
– they all envy her – they want to be free like her
– why did the camera pan over to show the young girl coming out of the store in one scene and then the combine in the farm field scene?
– “are you looking at me or my sandwich?”
– aha she’s hiding from the police
– the car repair shop owner got some somethin somethin and we see him crawl out of the tent
– she only became interesting once she died
– female drifters are not unusual in France

– – – – – – – – – –

CHARACTERS are the agents of cause and effect – have a physical body/presence on screen (animation or real life) – have a voice – sometimes its just the voice
– have attitudes, skills (crafty / funny / warm), habits, tastes and psychological drives

– – – – – – – – – –

THE OLD GREY HARE – Robert Hammond

– – – – – – – – – –

3 MISSES – Dir. Paul Dreissen (Netherlands 2000)


CITIZEN KANE + RKO 281

October 17, 2008

Considered to be the greatest film of all time, at yesterday’s Reading the Screen class, we watched, “CITIZEN KANE” by Orson Welles. Ironically enough, the night before on BRAVO, they showed, “RKO 281” the film made a few years ago about the making of, “CITIZEN KANE” starring Liev Shreiber and John Malkovich.

CITIZEN KANE – Trailer

CITIZEN KANE – opening clip

CITIZEN KANE – News on the March

CITIZEN KANE = #1 on the American Film Institute Top 100 Greatest Movies

– bold, sans serif, outlined type
– moody, sombre music score – misty scenery, deserted castle
– one lonely light on in the bedroom
– ROSEBUD – drops toy – nurse comes in – miniature camera used inside toy
– NEWS ON THE MARCH – Xanadu’s landlord – the loot of the world
– since the pyramids, xanadu’s man’s largest monument to himself
– greatest newspaper tycoon of his time
– “The words Charles Foster Kane are a menace to the workingman”
– “I am and always have been…an American.”
– the still unfinished Xanadu – cost…no man can say
– take my word for it…there will be no war…
– as it does to all men, death came to Charles Foster Kane
– What were Kane’s last words?
– ROSEBUD – dead or alive
– Walter Thatcher memorial library looks like a gigantic tomb
– solitary sunlight illuminating the safe room – looks like fort knox – more valuable then gold
– we see Kane as a young boy with his sled and acting with fun
– his father is concerned for the boy’s well being yet the mother is more than happy to sell him off to the bank
– his mother has had Charles’ trunk packed for a week – she seems like a sociopath with no feeling at all
– snow slowly builds on the sled – solitary and alone
– “I think it would be fun to run a newspaper!”
– he’s just having fun with the news stories and seems to be enjoying it
– Charles Foster Kane is a scoundrel
– it is also my pleasure to look out after the hardworking man
– at the rate of losing $1 million a year, I will have to close this place in…60 years
– if I hadn’t been rich…I could have been a great man
– there’s also the chance that they will change mr. kane without him knowing it
– people will think what I tell them to think…
– great cut scenes showing the passage of time over the breakfast table
– Kane got splashed by a horse carriage driving over a puddle

RKO 281 – Trailer

http://www.videodetective.com/movies/RKO_281/trailer/P00428932.htm